Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Personal tools
The global site for cruising sailors
Sections
You are here: Home / Countries / Papua New Guinea
By No owner — last modified Mar 14, 2016 03:06 PM

 Papua New Guinea - Profile

Facts

  • One of the most fascinating countries in the world, Papua New Guinea is definitely best visited by cruising boat. This not only gives one the opportunity to catch a glimpse of life in a society still following ancient ways, but also avoids the lawlessness that has affected the large towns (on the mainland) of this rich, but poorly managed, country. Outside of the main centres life is little changed and by using common sense one should be able to avoid the few hot spots of trouble (see security section below).
  • A cruise in Papua New Guinean waters has been for many people the highlight of their world cruise, and if one chooses one's itinerary carefully it is a country well worth visiting.
  • Over the years 1989-1997, the Bougainville region - in particular Bougainville Island - suffered great destruction of life and property during a civil war. Since the end of that period there has been a gradual restoration of peace. The region is now self-governing but still a part of PNG, and had an incident free presidential election in 2010. While there are some areas that are still no go (since June 2011, there have been a number of violent incidents in Central and Southern Bougainville and the port of Buka is considered un-safe), the port of Kieta is safe and has customs, with a well sheltered anchorage and access to provisions.
  • Nissan Island (part of Bougainville to the north) is spectacular and welcomes cruisers visiting.
  • The Royal Papua Yacht Club in Port Moresby has its own secure marina and welcomes visiting yachts. There are a large number of locally owned yachts in Port Moresby, where facilities are generally good.
  • Lae is a mining and transport hub and as such has an abundance of industries that can assist in yachting repairs and maintenance. The Lae Yacht Club is developing a haul out facility (via Hydraulic Trailer) however this service will not be in place until mid 2017.
  • Rabaul, on New Britain Island, was always a popular spot among cruising yachts, many of whom used to spend the cyclone season in its landlocked harbour, which is the crater of a volcano. In recent years the town has suffered two destructive volcanic eruptions, however it is trying to get back on its feet again and much of the reconstruction has been completed. Moorings are now available for visiting yachts.
  • Madang on the northern coast of New Guinea also has a well-protected harbour in an area scattered with islands, reefs and lagoons. It has always been a popular stop, especially for those yachts taking the route north of New Guinea towards Indonesia (see Security below).
  • The best cruising in Papua New Guinea is found among the many islands to the east of the main island, where islanders still live a peaceful life and sail large traditional canoes for fishing and trading voyages.
  • Facilities in the smaller towns and outer islands are often basic. There are small boatyards with their own slipways dotted about the country, so one is never too far away should the need arise for some emergency repair. However, all essential spares should be carried on board and one should also provision the boat in one of the major centres before sailing to the islands, where little except a few locally grown vegetables is available.
  • Situated in the centre of the Asia-Pacific region, surrounded by the Coral, Bismarck and Solomon Seas, whose constant movements feed and enrich the marine environment, PNG has twice as many marine species as the waters of the Red Sea and an estimated 10 times as many as the Caribbean. Its diving has been rated the Top Dive Destination in the World in Rodale’s Scuba Diving Readers Choice Awards.

Security

General Advice

It is important to check the latest security situation here using such sites as the U.K. FCO.

PNG has a high violent crime rate against both locals and foreigners. In recent years, the violence and unrest on the mainland appears to have spread to some of the previously untouched, outlying islands. Some of the areas where cruisers have experienced crime towards yachts are detailed below, and in the main these do tend to be armed and violent. Remember that you are a conspicuously rich visitor in a poor neighbourhood.

In general, it is best to avoid any place large enough to have people who migrate there away from their clan/extended family (such as Madang, Port Moresby and Lae - predominantly mainland PNG). There is no dependable rule of law and the traditional system keeps people in check in small communities. Many can't find work in the towns and life becomes even more desperate.

As with any travel in PNG you must remain vigilant at all times. Be sure to lock everything, keep your eyes open to trouble and do not walk around at night. When at anchor, remove anything valuable from the deck and secure anything else, lock your hatches when off the boat and at night, and keep a bright light burning in the cockpit all night to deter boarders.

Don't let your security lapse because you think everyone is so friendly. Most Papua New Guineans are incredibly friendly and giving and this is an amazing place to cruise. But there are always going to be people struggling and desperate, and they are in those bigger towns, or close by.

Another point to note is women should be sensitive with their dress and short or skimpy attire could attract unwanted attention.

A great many cruisers spend months cruising around PNG with no problems at all. Always check the current situation before planning an itineray for PNG (see noonsite piracy reports for a history of security reports from cruisers.)

The best way to find out about changing conditions is to listen to the news, both Radio Australia and Radio New Zealand having good Overseas Services for the Pacific area, or by contacting one's high commission or embassy in Port Moresby, who are usually well informed.

Cruisers' Advice

Useful reports on security by cruisers who have been to PNG:

Yacht Adina visited PNG in 2015. Their sailing notes have a list of all the anchorages they visited and advice on security. They did a lot of research in planning their route and did not encounter any problems. Yacht Adina Papua New Guinea Anchorage is available on:
www.yachtadina.co.uk/sailingnotes

SY Kelaerin's thoughts and experiences re. yacht security in PNG and the Solomons following a 2014 visit.

SY Totem's useful security summary in their March 2013 report of 3 months cruising around PNG.

Areas where cruisers have experienced crime:

Main Island

Port Moresby and Lae have been particularly affected by the surge in criminality; however, the area around the yacht club in Port Moresby is relatively trouble-free.

Madang on the northern coast of New Guinea, a popular stop with cruisers on their way to Indonesia, is now reported to have increasing security problems similar to those afflicting Lae and Port Moresby. A luxury motoryacht was boarded by thieves here in 2014 and a cruising yacht was boarded and attacked in Hansa Bay, October 2015.

Wewak, also on the north coast of mainland PNG, saw a yacht boarded by armed men with machetes and robbed in the presence of a military patrol in December 2015.

Theft from yachts is increasingly a risk on the islands East of the main island. Local knowledge and basic safety precautions are necessary.

New Ireland & New Britain

Safe anchorage can be found in a number of locations in New Ireland and New Britain. In Kavieng, New Ireland, anchorage off the Nusa Island Retreat on Nusalik Island provides a secure base. In New Britain, local advice remains that anchorage at Rabaul and Kokopo cannot be recommended, as boardings and thefts continue to occur here. The Duke of York Islands, close to Kokopo, have several good anchorages, with local villagers keen to ensure the safety of their island group for travelling yachts.

Outer Islands

Lever Harbor, New Georgia: Attempted night time theft from cockpit, 2014.

It is strongly advised that yachts avoid the Manus area (Admiralty Group) as yachts visiting in September 2011 experienced threatening behaviour from local "officials" (see report adjacent).

Vessels travelling west or east to/from Kavieng in Papua New Guinea and Jayapura in Indonesia, a distance of some 670 nautical miles, should note refueling opportunities are limited. Manus is an option if fuel is needed.

Last updated May 2016.

Weather

The climate is tropical. From December to April is the north-west monsoon (rarely a sailing wind during this time., while the south-east monsoon is from May to December. Only the south-east of the country is affected by tropical cyclones, whose season is from December until March.

The best time for diving is during the dry season, which starts around April/ May and runs until early December.

Papau New Guinea Weather Forecast

A useful guide to South Pacific weather resources complied by a Noonsite contributor, Rory Garland.

For links to free global weather information, forecast services and extreme weather information see the Noonsite Weather Page.

Main Ports

Bougainville: Buka * , Kieta *

Main Island: Alotau * , Daru * , Lae * , Madang * , Oro Bay (Dyke Ackland Bay) * , Port Moresby * , Samarai * , Vanimo * , Wewak *

New Britain Island: Kimbe * , Rabaul *

New Ireland: Feni Islands , Kavieng * , Lihir Island *

Other Outer Islands: Lorengau * , Misima Island , Ninigo Islands , Nissan Island

* indicates port of entry

Share |
Yanas
Yanas says:
Mar 12, 2016 01:02 PM

Hello. I've been part of Katharsis II crew in july 2015 for PNG leg between Alotau and Madang. Our route was Alotau-Discovery Bay-Esa'ala-Dobu-Tewara-Kiriwina (Kaibola-Omarakana-Losuia)-Kokopo-Rabaul-Duke of York-Byrona Strait-Au-Bagabag-Madang. Most of this trail I have marked by Holux GPS. If anyone needs info pls contact me.

Sue Richards
Sue Richards says:
Dec 08, 2015 05:47 PM

Read about SY INTI's project to distribute donated school supplies to remote areas in PNG and the Solomons adjacent, under "related news". If you are planning on cruising this part of the South Pacific, you can help.

simonbuk
simonbuk says:
Sep 17, 2015 08:52 AM

Hi Sue, thanks for your response. After being told that I could, then I couldn't by the same person in PNG consulate in Brisbane I found out that you can't get one on arrival if your arrive by yacht. Or you might but they would have to send it to Port Morseby and back. I have just got a visa in Brisbane, took a couple of weeks and a dozen emails to sort it out.

Sue Richards
Sue Richards says:
Sep 01, 2015 08:39 AM

Hi Simon, as far as noonsite is aware, visitors arriving by yacht in PNG can only obtain visas on arrival at designated international port of entry, i.e. Port Moresby, Rabaul or Daru.

simonbuk
simonbuk says:
Aug 28, 2015 03:52 AM

Does anybody know whether you can obtain a visa on arrival if you arrive by boat into Bouganville ? I am a UK national.

Meillia Kee
Meillia Kee says:
Feb 08, 2015 12:52 PM

We sailed briefly through the P.N.G with our three kids aged 9,7 and 6 in Oct and Nov 2014. We had no difficulties. Please note we stopped at very few places due to time pressures. We used SV Totem's map to plan our route and followed the same precautions as in the Solomons. We stayed away from the mainland and bigger towns. We cleared in at Kavieng which was a very very simple straight forward process. We listened to advice from locals about where to anchor, where to leave our dinghy, that kind of thing and once again, as in the Solomons, either we were in the right places or we were lucky but we never had any cause for concern leaving our boat or at night. A major highlight was the Hermit Islands. If you go there stock up on bath towels as that was a item high on the ladies trading list when we visited! Clearance from Vanimo was relatively smooth.
A note on malaria precautions. If you wish to take meds doxycyclone for adults is available in many places but not Larium (or anything else) for kids. We got a prescription from a hospital doctor in Suva, Fiji. I thought we could get a repeat in Indonesia but it has proved impossible. We were kindly given some malaria tester kits that you can buy online by another 'kid boat'. We also brought treatment meds in Kavieng that were recommended by the guys at Nusa Resort. The pharmacist was great as she made up little kits for each member of the family with the correct doses for each person. So, we try to avoid being bitten by using deet lotion (called "Autan" in Papua and Maluku), long sleeves and trousers in the evening, trying to be back on board before dusk and mossie nets.
We enjoyed our short time P.N.G and are keen to return and spend much longer there.

Sherrinthesea
Sherrinthesea says:
Nov 29, 2014 05:29 AM

Correct Procedure for Entrance Clearance in Rabaul/Kokopo.
It is very important that yachts follow the proper procedure for clearing into PNG through Kokopo/Rabaul. You must anchor by Rabaul so that Quarantine inspection can be carried out before you are cleared in with Immigration and Customs in Kokopo. The authorities are extremely concerned that yachts are not adhering to the correct procedures. The Quarantine man, Peter Johnson, said the best thing to do is to go to the Yacht Club and they will help yachts do things the right way. There was talk of fining us and another yacht who had not done things the wrong way round too. Rabaul is the official Port of Entry, not Kokopo.

Papua New Guinea
Bougainville
Main Island
New Britain Island
New Ireland
Other Outer Islands
Profile
Facts
Security
Weather
Main Ports
Formalities
Clearance
Immigration
Customs
Health
Documents
Fees
Restrictions
Local Customs
Clearance Agents
Pets
General Info
Time Zone
Yachting Essentials
Opening Hours
Money
Communications
Transport
Diplomatic Missions
Events
Emergencies
Publications
Links
Update History
Countries
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua & Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba
Ascension Island
Australia
Azores
BIOT (Chagos)
Bahamas
Bahrain
Barbados
Belgium
Belize
Bermuda
Bonaire
Bosnia
Bouvetoya
Brazil
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Canada
Canary Islands
Cape Verdes
Cayman Islands
Channel Islands
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Cocos Keeling
Colombia
Comoros
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Curacao
Cyprus
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
East Timor (Timor Leste)
Easter Island
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Subantarctic Territory
Galapagos
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Hawaii
Heard, McDonald & Macquarie Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Juan Fernandez Islands
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Latvia
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Madeira
Malaysia
Maldives
Malta
Marion & Prince Edward Island
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Monaco
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar (Burma)
Namibia
Nauru
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
New Zealand's Subantarctic Islands
Nicaragua
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Marianas
Norway
Oman
Palau (Belau)
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Island
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Reunion Island
Romania
Russia
Saba
Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Sint Maarten
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands
South Korea
Spain
Spanish Virgin Islands
Sri Lanka
St Barts
St Helena
St Kitts & Nevis
St Lucia
St Martin
St Pierre & Miquelon
St Vincent & the Grenadines
Statia
Subantarctic & Southern Ocean Islands
Sudan
Suriname
Sweden
Syria
Taiwan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad & Tobago
Tristan da Cunha
Tunisia
Turkey
Turks & Caicos
Tuvalu
US Virgin Islands
USA
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Uruguay
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Wallis and Futuna
Yemen
Add/Update Your Business
If you would like your business to be listed, or the details are wrong, please update your business
Related Reports
Papua New Guinea: Notes on a Visit in May 2016

Papua New Guinea: Notes on a Visit in May 2016 (25 Jul 2016)

Trading Goods in the South Pacific

Trading Goods in the South Pacific (26 May 2016)

Report Icon

Yacht Adina notes on Vanimo, Papua New Guinea: Obtaining Indonesian visas and checking out from PNG (20 May 2016)

Report Icon

Pacific - List of Radio Nets (18 Apr 2016)

Report Icon

Papau New Guinea, Wewak: Yacht boarded and robbed by armed men – December 2015 (25 Dec 2015)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Madang: Boarding and Machete Attack in Hansa Bay - October 2015 (20 Oct 2015)

Report Icon

Cruising through PNG and the Solomon Islands 2014-2015 (17 Apr 2015)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, New Britain Island, Rabaul: Boarded and Robbed at Knifepoint - November 2014 (09 Dec 2014)

Report Icon

New Britain: Clearance at Rabaul (04 Dec 2014)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Madang, near Krangket Island: Luxury motoryacht boarded by thieves - October 2014 (07 Oct 2014)

Report Icon

PNG and Solomons: Security (31 Jul 2014)

Report Icon

Tropical South Pacific weather resources (17 Mar 2014)

Longan Island, Ninigo Atoll: Very warm welcome for yachts

Longan Island, Ninigo Atoll: Very warm welcome for yachts (17 Feb 2014)

Alotau, Milne Bay: Good times at the National Canoe and Kundu Festival - 1st week in November

Alotau, Milne Bay: Good times at the National Canoe and Kundu Festival - 1st week in November (10 Feb 2014)

Cruising the South Pacific with Pets on board - hassle in Fiji

Cruising the South Pacific with Pets on board - hassle in Fiji (15 Jan 2014)

Cruisers will receive a warm welcome in Lae

Cruisers will receive a warm welcome in Lae (16 Oct 2013)

Report Icon

Courtesy Flags for the South Pacific (14 Oct 2013)

Madang Update

Madang Update (17 Jun 2013)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Ninigo Atoll: Report of Three Visits (28 Mar 2013)

Report Icon

The Power of the noonsite Messageboard (18 Mar 2013)

Report Icon

Family Cruising in Papua New Guinea (13 Mar 2013)

Report Icon

Louisiades Yacht Rally - on again for 2013 (25 Feb 2013)

Report Icon

North of PNG, Ninigo Atoll: Mal Island is the Icing on the Cake (19 Oct 2012)

Report Icon

Cruising in the Louisiades: Free E Book (03 Oct 2012)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, New Britain, Ndawa Bay: Armed Boarding, Attack and Robbery - August 2012 (28 Sep 2012)

Report Icon

Offshore New Ireland: Cruising the Tabar Islands (24 Sep 2012)

Report Icon

General Cruising Info. for PNG & the Solomons (01 Sep 2012)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Witu group, Garove Island: Armed Boarding and Attack - March 2012 (31 Mar 2012)

Report Icon

Sailing back to Australia from SE Asia (29 Feb 2012)

Report Icon

Cruising SE Asia - Security Tips (01 Jan 2012)

Report Icon

Checking in at the Loisade Archipelago, Papua New Guinea (15 Nov 2011)

Report Icon

PNG, Admiralty Group: Trouble on Manus Island in Lorengau - Updated (07 Oct 2011)

Report Icon

Ninigo Island group - Admiralty Islands (26 Sep 2011)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea: Madang - Nightime Boarding & Burglary (03 Aug 2011)

Report Icon

Hermit Atoll in Papua New Guinea: Latest cruising news – March 2011. (30 Jun 2011)

Report Icon

Ninigo Atoll in Papua New Guinea: Latest cruising news – March 2011. (30 Jun 2011)

Report Icon

Helen Reef - a convenient stopover between Borneo and PNG (29 Jun 2011)

Report Icon

Frightening Attack in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea (16 Mar 2011)

Report Icon

Admiralty islands, Papua New Guinea 2010 (19 Dec 2010)

Report Icon

Bougainville Region now Safe and Worth a Visit (03 Nov 2010)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea: Blupblup Island - Armed Robbery (05 Jun 2010)

Report Icon

Escape from Hermit Island: Two Women Struggle to Save Their Sunken Sailboat in Remote Papua New Guinea (03 Jun 2010)

Report Icon

Louisiades Rally, Its on Again for 2010 (16 Jan 2010)

Report Icon

PNG - Just Great! (19 Sep 2009)

Report Icon

OceansWatch PNG expedition update: Karkar Island (19 Sep 2009)

Report Icon

More Notes on PNG (31 Aug 2009)

Report Icon

Notes on Entering and Departing the Solomons and PNG (21 Aug 2009)

Report Icon

Cruising Around Northern PNG and onto Bali (11 Feb 2009)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Wewak - Yacht boarded by armed men (21 Jan 2009)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Madang - Attack on Yacht (21 Jan 2009)

Report Icon

2004 - Mixed Reports On Papua New Guinea Security (21 Jan 2009)

Report Icon

The alternative route to Indonesia. (Part 2) (21 Nov 2008)

Report Icon

PNG, Port Moresby to Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (01 Sep 2008)

Report Icon

Philippines to Sydney (10 Jul 2008)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea is just delightful! (26 Jun 2008)

Report Icon

Langkawi to Vanuatu via Philippines (22 May 2008)

Report Icon

Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu to Cairns, Australia (22 May 2008)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea to Thailand (22 May 2008)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Madang to Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (22 May 2008)

Report Icon

Hong Kong to Sydney, Australia by 55' Power Boat (17 May 2008)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby into the Pacific area (15 May 2008)

Report Icon

Australia to Philippines (15 May 2008)

Report Icon

Cruise in company to Papua New Guinea from Queensland (30 Jan 2008)

Report Icon

Report On Australia to Philippines Via Palau & PNG (17 Jan 2008)

Report Icon

Tide Information In South Pacific (17 Oct 2007)

Report Icon

Sailing the Sepik River (31 Jan 2006)

Report Icon

Question On Navigating The Sepik River (23 Jan 2006)

Report Icon

Cruising PNG (14 Sep 2005)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea Cruising News 2004 (09 Dec 2004)

Report Icon

Cruising Update On PNG And Security Alert For 2004 (20 Sep 2004)

Report Icon

25th Anniversary of Moon Handbooks South Pacific (24 Jun 2004)

Report Icon

Question about Rabaul Volcano (21 Jan 2004)

Report Icon

Cruising news from Milne Bay Province in Papua New Guinea (03 Dec 2003)

Report Icon

Rabaul Logistics (19 Dec 2002)

Report Icon

Budi Budi & Misima Island: latest cruising news (05 Dec 2002)

Related News
PNG & Solomon Islands: Project to distribute donated school supplies to remote areas

PNG & Solomon Islands: Project to distribute donated school supplies to remote areas  (08 Dec 2015)

Pacific Islands' drought driven by El Nino

Pacific Islands' drought driven by El Nino  (03 Dec 2015)

Papua New Guinea & Solomons: Sailing the Coral Sea with a "Light" Cargo

Papua New Guinea & Solomons: Sailing the Coral Sea with a "Light" Cargo  (10 Feb 2015)

Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia to Sydney: Pacific Climate Warriors calling all sailboats

Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia to Sydney: Pacific Climate Warriors calling all sailboats  (13 May 2014)

NE Australia: Ports shut as Cat 5 Cyclone due to hit tomorrow

NE Australia: Ports shut as Cat 5 Cyclone due to hit tomorrow  (10 Apr 2014)

New Guinea, West Papua: Warning about Protest Flotilla

New Guinea, West Papua: Warning about Protest Flotilla  (23 Aug 2013)

Great New Service for noonsite users: Get notified of cruising news, reports and country updates as they are posted

Great New Service for noonsite users: Get notified of cruising news, reports and country updates as they are posted  (23 May 2013)

Report Icon

Summary of Security & Piracy Reports 2012  (28 Feb 2013)

Report Icon

2011 - Security & Piracy Round-Up  (30 Jan 2012)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea: scientists/sailors missing, pirates now suspected   (20 Oct 2011)

Report Icon

OceansWatch - How Cruisers Can Help in 2011  (06 May 2011)

Report Icon

Australian family shipwrecked on MogMog, Micronesia  (17 May 2010)

Report Icon

Calling all Cruisers in PNG, Madang  (14 May 2010)

Report Icon

Papua New Guinea: Blupblup Island - Armed Robbery  (14 May 2010)

Report Icon

OceansWatch expedition sets sail for Melanesia  (06 May 2010)

Report Icon

OceansWatch to tour the Australian East Coast  (30 Oct 2009)

Report Icon

Powerful earthquakes off Vanuatu trigger warning of tsunami  (08 Oct 2009)

Report Icon

New Rally Cairns to Louisiades Archipelago, PNG - Entry List Closed  (20 Jul 2008)

Report Icon

Oceanswatch: Bringing Yachts and Local Communities Together  (25 Sep 2007)

Report Icon

Solomon Islands Suffer Tsunami  (03 Apr 2007)

Report Icon

Brunei Bay Radio Services  (23 Feb 2005)